Thus, it was concluded that illumination did not have any effect on productivity but something else was interfering with the productivity. At that time, it was concluded that human factor was important in determining productivity but which aspect was affecting, it was not sure. If you provide for the social needs of your employees, it will improve their work behaviors and productivity if it is done with sincerity. This often does not require significant financial incentives or investments.
The investigator concluded that the effect of a wage incentive system is no greatly influenced by social considerations that it is impossible to consider it capable of independent effect. None of the results of the three first stages gave the slightest substantiation to the theory that the workers are primarily motivated by economic interest. The evidence indicates that the efficiency of a wage incentive is so independent on its relation to other factors and cannot be taken as an independent effect. The purpose of the next study was to find out how payment incentives would affect productivity.
It seemed that increased attention from supervisors could improve job performance. During the course of interviews, it was discovered that worker’s behavior was being influenced by group behavior. Bank wiring observation room experiments The concluding study at Hawthorne was significant because it confirmed that the importance of one aspect of the informal organization on worker productivity.
What was the conclusion of relay assembly test room experiment?
Mayo reasoned that “the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to co-operation in an experiment.”6 These views contributed to Mayo and Roethlisberger's conclusion that mental attitudes, proper supervision, and informal social relationships experienced in a group were key …
The reason behind the decrease involved a fear the men held — a loss of income. They were concerned that the company would lower the base rate if they worked faster or better than normal, and therefore began establishing cliques to enforce rules and standards for output, as well as behavior. The workers started to respond with unified answers, regardless of the truth.
Hawthorne studies occurred in the 1920s in Illinois and were designed to explore avenues to increase worker productivity. It is possible for regular evaluations by the experimenters to function as a scoreboard that enhances productivity. The mere fact that the workers are better acquainted with their performance may actuate them to increase their output. However, these gains in productivity disappeared when the attention faded (Roethlisberg & Dickson, 1939).
The Hawthorne studies have been described as the most important social science experiment ever conducted in an industrial setting, yet the studies were not without their critics. Several criticisms, including those of sociologist Daniel Bell, focused on the exclusion of unionized workers in the studies. Sociologists and economists were the most commanding critics, defending their disciplinary turf more than offering serious criticisms.
Secondary observer effect
Initially the women were monitored for productivity, and then they were isolated in a test room. Finally, the workers began to participate in a group payment rate, where extra pay for increased productivity was shared by the group. The other relay assemblers did not share in any bonus pay, but researchers concluded this added incentive was necessary for full cooperation. This single difference has been historically criticized as the one variable having the greatest significance on test results.
Experiments have shown that the output increases when workers are explained the logic behind various decisions and their participation in decision making brings better results. The workers in a group develop a common psychological bond uniting them as £ group in the form of informal organisation. Pressure of a group, rather than management demands, frequently relay assembly test room experiment has the strongest influence on how productive workers would be. The position or status of worker in the company is a reference from which the worker assigns meaning and value to the events, objects and features of his environment such as hours of work, wages, etc. The interview programme gave valuable insights about the human behaviour in the company.
Criticism of Hawthorne Studies
For example, someone may drink less than they normally would when out with friends because their significant other joined them. Therefore, any temporary change in behavior caused by the subject receiving attention is best described by the Hawthorne effect. The researchers at Hawthorne Works concluded from their studies that working conditions such as regular breaks, a clean workspace, and a well-lit environment (independent variable) increased performance (dependent variable).
- The basic idea was to vary and record levels of illumination in a test room with the expectation that as lighting was increased, productivity would too.
- The interview programme was one of the largest parts of the research.
- Additional observation unveiled the existence of smaller cliques within the main group.
- The workers in a group develop a common psychological bond uniting them as £ group in the form of informal organisation.
- The original question asked by Hawthorne Works management was whether lighting impacted worker productivity.
What were the findings of the bank wiring observation room experiment?
Bank Wiring Room
The employees were compensated based on their individual productivity. To the surprise of both the researchers and the company, the study found that employee productivity decreased with increased wage incentives. Apparently, the employees became suspicious of the unexpected wage incentive.